What is Jantar Mantar? It is a historical astrological monument in Jaipur, Rajasthan. This monument was built in 1738. The site is a collection of 19 historic structures.
Also there are 17 other substructures. Thus, making a total of 35 structures. These structures allow observers to calculate astrological positions with naked eye.
Where is Jantar Mantar?
It is situated in the heart of Jaipur city across a street from City palace. The whole compound area is called Jaleb Chowk.
Jantar Mantar Jaipur History
Sawai Jai SIngh ll laid the foundation of Jantar Mantar in 1718 AD and the construction continued for 16 years. Eventually in 1734 AD it was completed.
Question – Who built Jantar Mantar?
Answer – Sawai Jai Singh ll built Jantar Mantar Observatory.
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Why was Jantar Mantar built?
Sawai Jai Singh ll witnessed a heated discussion in the court of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah in 1718 AD. The argument was about calculating an auspicious date when the emperor could start a journey. For this reason he built observatories at 5 places:
These observatories would help in calculating more precise readings of movement of sun, stars, planets and moon.
Henceforth it would help in making astronomical calculations and predictions of solar or lunar eclipses. This was a benchmark amalgamation of religion and science in that era.
What does Jantar Mantar means?
Jantar in Sanskrit means instrument or machine. The origin of word Jantar is a Sanskrit word Yantra. Yantra means instrument or machine. Mantar is derived from Sanskrit word Mantra or Mantrana which means consultation or calculation. Thus, Jantar Mantar means Calculating instruments.
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Structures or Yantras in observatory are made of stone masonry. These are plastered with lime.
Some instruments are built using marble and polished for better finishing and precision. Certain parts of structures are made of astronomical metal scales and filled with lead for precise calculations.
Interesting Jantar Mantar Jaipur Facts
- This monument is protected & maintained by Archaeological Survey of India.
- The Samrat Yantra is world’s largest sundial with height of 27 meters.
- The Samrat Yantra sundial is precise up to 3 seconds
- An amount of 100000-150000 Indian Rupees were spent on its construction in 18th century
UNESCO has given Jantar Mantar the status of World Heritage Site
List of structures/instruments in Jantar Mantar Jaipur
At the present time there are 19 structures in the observatory. To summarise here is the list with their functions:
|Brihat or Samrat Yantra||To tell time during day or night|
|Sasthamsa Yantra||To calculate Sun's distance and Zenith destance|
|Jai Prakash Yantra||To observe night time|
|Small Ram Yantra||Also to observe night time|
|Dhruva Darsaka Yantra||To show the pole star|
|Nadivalaya Yantra||To observe solar time|
|Horizontal Sundial atop Madivalaya Yantra||Horizontal sundial to observe time|
|Krantivritta Yantra||To function as Torquetum|
|Krantivritta ll Yantra||To measure celestial latitude and longitude|
|Daleshinottara Bhitti Yantra||To calculate altitude of a celestial object|
|Yantra Raj||To measure altitude, Zenith distance, local time, declination on longitude|
|Chakra Yantra||To calculate declination of celestial objects|
|Digamsa Yantra||To calculate angle of a zimuth|
|Unnathamsa Yantra||To calculate altitude of a celestial body|
|Rasivalaya Yantra||To calculate latitude of a celestial object|
|Kapala Yantra||To calculate local time and coordinates of the sun|
|Laghu Samrat Yantra||To measure time|
The observatory was a result of culmination of principles of observational astronomy from various cultures. Jai Singh ll studied models of:
- Ulugh Beg’s observatory at Samarkand
- European literature about instrumental astrology
- Ancient Sanskrit scriptures.
He contributed Zij-i Muhammad Shahi by observations made at these observatories. Jaipur became a Mecca for astrologers from around the country after the establishment of Jantar Mantar. Astronomers and astrologers would come to Jaipur to study and discuss their views.
Significance in Modern World
In fact some instruments are in working condition till today. The site attracts tourists from around the world. On the full moon day of Ashada month local astronomers gather at the Jantar Mantar so as to perform religious rites. They also predict monsoon rains in the radius of 100 kms.
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Sound and Light Show
The Sound and Light show is a tribute to Jai Singh ll. For this reason it uses lighting, graphics and animations for storytelling. Timings for Sound and Light Show are:
|October - February||6:30 PM||7:30 PM|
|March - April||7:00 PM||8:00 PM|
|May - September||7:30 PM||8:30 PM|
The show duration is for 45 mins.
Jantar Mantar Jaipur Timings
The monument is open for tourists everyday from 9 AM in morning to 4:30 PM in the evening.
Jantar Mantar Jaipur Ticket Price
Ticket price are 40 Rs for Indian and 200 Rs for Foreigner (per person).
In case you are carrying a still or video camera additional charges are applicable.
The monument is situated in the center of tourism activities in Jaipur. In brief here is a list of some equally important places of interest around it. In other words, Jantar Mantar nearby places.
- City Palace (50 Yards)
- Hawamahal (1.1 Kms)
- Sargasuli (450 meters)
- Albert Hall (2.6 Kms)
- Kalki Temple (500 Meters)
How to reach Jantar Mantar Jaipur?
The site is well connected to every part of town by buses, cabs, taxis, autos & e-rickshaws. Buses drop in the market 350 meters far from Jantar Mantar therefore, visitors can hire an e-rickshaw or walk up to the site.
- Airport – Jaipur International Airport (12.3 Kms)
- Railway Station – Jaipur Railway Station (5.2 Kms)
- Bus Stand – Sindhi Camp Bus Stand, Jaipur (2.7 Kms)
- Metro Station – Chandpole Metro Station (2.1 Kms)
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