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Everything about Jaipur: Pink City History, Food, Festival, Shopping (10 min read)
Jaipur is the capital of Rajasthan State in India. It get its name from Sawai Jai Singh ll (3 November 1688 – 21 September 1743) who founded the city on 18 November 1727.
Jaipur is the administrative capital of Rajasthan State and also an important centre of tourism, education and healthcare.
Jaipur is 280 km away from Delhi, capital of India located on Delhi-Mumbai connecting Road and Rail tracks which again makes it a choice for industries. Jaipur is very popular amongst tourists because of its unique culture which is the perfect blend of modern life & heritage era. Jaipur is also known as the Pink City of India.
Jaipur meaning – It literally means City of Victory (Jai meaning Victory in Hindi/Sanskrit).
How to Reach Jaipur?
Jaipur is very well connected via roads and rails to major cities of India. It is located on National Highway 48 (earlier it was number 8) which connects Delhi to Mumbai. Other highways that pass through are Highway 11 which links Bikaner to Agra and Highway 52 which links Jaipur to Kota.
Jaipur is 6 hours drive away from Delhi. Rajasthan Roadways have daily service to major cities of Rajasthan and other States including Delhi. Major Railway stations in Jaipur are Jagatpura, Gandhinagar, Sanganer, and Durgapura.
Jaipur is the Headquarter of North Western Zone of Indian Railways.
Must read: Travel from Delhi to Jaipur
Jaipur International Airport is 11 KMS away from the walled city. The airport operates regular services to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Udaipur, Indore, Ahmedabad, Pune and Guwahati.
International destinations connected with Jaipur are Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Muscat, Singapore, Bangkok and Sharjah.
Important – If you\\\’re looking to watch all important places of Jaipur in video, watch the one attached below. After the video, do read rest of the information we have shared here, which is all related to Jaipur, the pink city.
Jaipur was founded by Sawai Jai Singh ll on 18th November 1727. Sawai Jai Singh ll was the ruler of Amber which was the capital of Kachwaha Rajputs. Sawai Jai Singh ll learnt Hindi, Sanskrit and Persian.
Jai Singh ll developed a keen interest in mathematics and astronomy at an early age. Due to increasing population and scarcity of water, he dreamt of establishing a new city, Jayanagara. Sawai Jai Singh ll consulted several books on town planning and architecture.
Jai Singh ll approached young Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya who was an auditor in Amber State at that time. Sawai Jai Singh shared his dream of establishing a city of dreams, A city which would provide safety to general population and will be an architectural example to the world.
Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya planned the layout of Jaipur and Jai Singh ll laid the foundation of Jaipur, amongst first planned cities of India. Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya used principles of Shilpa Shastra and Vastu Shastra to create a model of Jaipur.
Jaipur city was divided into 9 blocks. Seven blocks were for general public and 2 blocks were reserved for Royal Family. Jaipur city was fortified with thick walls which gave an impression of a long fort and it had seven gates.
Jai Singh studied and then utilized water resources at that time to build many wells, step wells and lakes to preserve and provide fresh drinking water to the population. Some of these water reservoirs and step wells are still present and imminent in today’s world.
It took 4 years after commencement of construction in 1726 to finish major roads, buildings and palaces. Later rulers contributed well in the development of Jaipur. Various entrepreneurs, Traders, artisans and Scholars from all over India were invited to settle in Jaipur.
State allotted them land in Jaipur for construction of mansions or Havelis and many were given titles in recognition of their talents. Then rulers of Jaipur State understood the necessity of education and they founded schools for the general public. School of Art was one such Institution where students learnt about fine arts.
School of Arts was founded in 1857 in Kishanpole Bazar by Sawai Ram Singh ll erstwhile then ruler of erstwhile Jaipur State. After Indian independence and formation of Rajasthan, State Jaipur was declared capital of the state. Since then the city has grown significantly.
Sawai Ram Singh ll
If Sawai Jai Singh ll is credited with foundation of Jaipur than Sawai Ram Singh ll is rightly said to be navigator of Jaipur State to 19th century. Raja Ram Singh ll took throne at the time of political turmoil.
After ruling Delhi for over around 300 years Mughal dynasty was into its last phase. While East India Company tightened its grip on Indian subcontinent, Jaipur State was no exception for British Imperialism.
Sawai Ram Singh ll was bestowed with throne when there was a constant power struggle between Maratha, Mughal and British Empires. And there were attacks from Pindari too. Sawai Ram Singh ll learnt administrative skills and strenuous application of state affairs from his British officers and the positive British influence could be seen in Jaipur till now.
Sawai Ram Singh ll is credited with modernization of Jaipur State. Ram Singh ll ordered construction of Albert Hall to welcome Prince of Wales. Albert Hall still is the most iconic architectural monument in Jaipur.
It is a fusion of British and Rajput architecture. It was during the visit of Prince of Wales that Jaipur was coloured pink by the orders of Ram Singh ll which gave Jaipur its international recognition.
When was Jaipur established?
In early 17th Century, Amber Kingdom was ruled by Kachwaha Rajput King Jai Singh ll. Due to its political alliances with nearby Mughal Sultanate capital Delhi, Jaipur thrived politically and economically.
With growing population, Jai Singh ll started feeling a need for bigger city which could accommodate growing population and provide for fresh drinking water. Thus. Jai Singh ll founded Jaipur in 1726 and after 4 years of work, main markets and buildings were finished.
Walled City of Jaipur
The walled city of Jaipur is still the epicentre of all activities in Jaipur. More than 55% of all the commercial activities take place within the Walled City of Jaipur. It was built in 5 km square in 9 blocks.
7 blocks were for general public and 2 were reserved for Palaces and Royal Mansions. The main market of Tripolia Bazar, Ramganj Bazar and Chandpole Bazar are in a straight line from east to west.
Other markets like Jouhari Bazar, Kishanpole Bazar cross them perpendicularly on square distinguishing crossings called Chaupads. Earlier there were only seven entry gates, later on, Singh Dwar and New Gate were built.
Architecture of Jaipur
Since it was established Jaipur has been famous for its architecture. From first stone laid in 1726 to 21st Century architecture in Jaipur City has set examples for the world which are still studied and praised.
The formation of main markets, broad roads were way ahead of its time. Forts like Jaigarh and Amber Fort are built on Aravali Hills and they still stand strong.
First, it was the fusion of Rajput and Mughal Architecture then after the influence of British, monuments like Albert Hall were made.
And, in modern times buildings like Shree Cement Office on JLN Marg and Motisons Tower on Tonk Road are an attraction.
Why Jaipur is called Pink City of India?
Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh ll then ruler of Jaipur State ordered all markets and main buildings to be coloured pink to welcome Prince Albert of Britain in 1876. The colour pink or ‘Gerua’ is a symbol of warmth, courage and respect.
Thus, first Photographer Prince of India Raja Ram Singh ll ordered the markets to be coloured pink. Uniformity of city buildings and markets turned out to be so beautiful that later administration made it mandatory by law for main markets and buildings to be coloured in pink.
So, this is why and when Jaipur was painted pink.
Distinctive architectural town planning puts Jaipur on World Tourism Diary. 17th century City markets coloured in pink and palaces makes it a royal romantic story for everyone. Due to its political influences, monuments in Jaipur have a mark of fusion of Rajput a, Mughal and British architecture.
Forts like Amber Fort, Jaigarh and Nahargarh Fort, broad roads, mansions are ideal for tourists. UNESCO has declared Jantar Mantar of Jaipur as World Heritage Site. Jantar Mantar Monument was built by Sawai Jai Singh ll.
19 architectural instruments were used to calculate time, celestial movements, predict weather and other astronomical values. Jantar Mantar is still in working condition and opens for tourists. Jaipur is also famous for coloured stone jewellery. Jaipur is the hub of rough coloured stone’s cutting, polishing and trading.
The culture of Jaipur promotes various Art forms like dancing, painting, music and statue making due to which some correctly consider Jaipur as Paris of India.
Places to Visit in Night in Jaipur
There are many options available to explore in Jaipur in the night. There are regular Light and Sound shows in Amber Fort, Amar Jawan Jyoti and Jantar Mantar.
For Theatre enthusiasts Ravindra Rangmanch hosts play. And one more addition is Rajmandir Cinema Hall for the love of Bollywood movies. Rajmandir Cinema Hall night shows daily.
There are few discs and pubs in town, catching up with the western culture.
Must Visit Places in Jaipur
- Amer Fort
- Nahargarh Fort
- Hawa Mahal
- Motidungri Temple
- Birla Mandir
- Jawahar Kala Kendra
- Galtaji – Monkey Temple of Jaipur
- Garh Ganesh
- World Trade Park
- Jawahar Circle
These are not all but a good list to finish of in two-three days visit to Jaipur city.
Forts in Jaipur
Jaipur is guarded by three forts and Aravali hills. Amber Fort is the oldest one. Foundation of Amber Fort was laid by Meena Kings and later Kachwaha Rajput Kings expanded it into present structure.
It is famous for its bright yellow colour, paved courtyards, long galleries and a breathtaking view of Maotha Lake. Adjacent to Amber Fort is Jaigarh Fort which was built in 1726 by Jai Singh ll. It was built to provide extra protection to Amber Fort.
Jaigarh Fort is named after Jai Singh ll and it is famous for ‘Jaivana’. Jaivana was once the largest cannon on wheels in the world. Jaivana was built in Jaigarh Fort only. And the last one is Nahargarh Fort.
Or Sudarshan Garh as it was named earlier. Nahargarh Fort was built by Sawai Jai Singh II in 1734. Nahargarh Fort attracts a lot of Bollywood movie producers for its scenic views of Jaipur City. Rang De Basanti, Shuddh Desi Romance & Sonar Killa are some notable movies shot here.
Over the years Cuisine of Jaipur has adopted from various cultures. Jaipur Cuisine is prepared according to the weather and the occasions. Various restaurants provide for traditional Rajasthani food like Dal, Bati & Choorma.
But with development and settling of people from other parts of the country, various restaurants offer Punjabi Cuisine, Mughalai Dishes, South India Food and Chinese Food. Jaipur Cuisine is generally a balance of spicy and sweets.
However, like every other North Indian Family’s Kitchen Roti, Dal, Rice, Pickle, Salad and vegetables are the staple food of Jaipur.
Elephant Ride in Jaipur
Elephants are considered sacred animals in Indian Culture. Elephants are symbolic of power, wealth and prosperity. Tourists can have an Elephant ride in Jaipur. The facility is managed by Tourism Department and female elephants are used for the ride.
Elephant ride in Jaipur starts from downhill of Amber Fort and commences at the Fort entrance. To protect elephants from cruelty everyday trips per elephants are fixed. Veterinary Doctors perform regular checkups of these magnificent animals. Tourists are advised to arrive early to avoid missing the ride.
Places to Visit in a Day near Jaipur
As Jaipur is well connected to other cities of India it allows tourists to visit other places near Jaipur in a day.
- To see a Tiger in its natural habitat is said to be one of a kind experience. Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is one of the largest national parks in India which could be covered in a day.
- Another Tiger Reserve is Sariska which is home to Royal Bengal Tigers. Safaris are closed during monsoon season.
- Pushkar is famous for tourists for its culture and one of main Brahma Temples in the world. It is only 2 and half hours drive away from Jaipur.
Golden Triangle India
Golden Triangle India refers to a tourist circuit which covers national capital Delhi, Agra and Jaipur, the Pink City of India. Each city is approximately 5-6 hours drive away from each other.
Most of the Foreign Tourists plan their visit to cover this circuit. Jaipur is an important destination as it is considered the Gateway to magnificent Thar Desert landscapes and Palaces of Rajasthan.
Climate in Jaipur
Jaipur is situated at the junction of hot Thar desert and semi-arid plains of India. If we move west from Jaipur climate changes to of a desert type and we move east the climate is relatively of plains.
Jaipur receives moderate rainfall that too majorly during the monsoon season that starts from mid-June and ends till September.
In October temperature starts to fall. Winters are usually pleasant with average temperature ranging from 10-15°. On extreme days it may fall up to 4°. Winter season is also considered as Tourism Season which stays up until March or Holi Festival.
Summer temperatures are relatively higher in months of April, May and June. Mercury may rise up to 45° and the average temperature is 30-35°.
Best Time to Visit Jaipur
Unless you plan to experience summer of Rajasthan, the best time to visit Jaipur is during winter season in India. You can also plan Jaipur visit during monsoon period. Details of these weather are already mentioned above.
In case you\\\’re coming from Capital of India to Capital of Rajasthan, then I suggest reading Delhi to Jaipur coverage to have proper guidance on transit options.
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